The Journey To The West:这就是《西游记》的英文版   满意请采纳,谢谢




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  Synopsis of Journey to the West   西游记概要   The novel comprises 100 chapters. These can be divided into four very unequal parts. The first, which includes chapters 1–7, is really a self-contained introduction to the main story. It deals entirely with the earlier exploits of Sūn Wùkōng, a monkey born from a stone nourished by the Five Elements, who learns the art of the Tao, 72 polymorphic transformations, combat, and secrets of immortality, and through guile and force makes a name for himself as the Qítiān Dàshèng (simplified Chinese: 齐天大圣), or "Great Sage Equal to Heaven". His powers grow to match the forces of all of the Eastern (Taoist) deities, and the prologue culminates in Sūn's rebellion against Heaven, during a time when he garnered a post in the celestial bureaucracy. Hubris proves his downfall when the Buddha manages to trap him under a mountain and sealing the mountain with a talisman for five hundred years.   Only following this introductory story is the nominal main character, Xuánzàng, introduced. Chapters 8–12 provide his early biography and the background to his great journey. Dismayed that "the land of the South knows only greed, hedonism, promiscuity, and sins", the Buddha instructs the bodhisattva Guānyīn to search Táng China for someone to take the Buddhist sutras of "transcendence and persuasion for good will" back to the East. Part of the story here also relates to how Xuánzàng becomes a monk (as well as revealing his past life as a disciple of the Buddha named "Golden Cicada" (金蝉子) and comes about being sent on this pilgrimage by the Emperor Táng Tàizōng, who previously escaped death with the help of an underworld official).   The third and longest section of the work is chapters 13–99, an episodic adventure story which combines elements of the quest as well as the picaresque. The skeleton of the story is Xuánzàng's quest to bring back Buddhist scriptures from Vulture Peak in India, but the flesh is provided by the conflict between Xuánzàng's disciples and the various evils that beset him on the way.   The scenery of this section is, nominally, the sparsely populated lands along the Silk Road between China and India, including Xinjiang, Turkestan, and Afghanistan. The geography described in the book is, however, almost entirely fantastic; once Xuánzàng departs Cháng'ān, the Táng capital, and crosses the frontier (somewhere in Gansu province), he finds himself in a wilderness of deep gorges and tall mountains, all inhabited by flesh-eating demons who regard him as a potential meal (since his flesh was believed to give immortality to whoever ate it), with here and there a hidden monastery or royal city-state amid the wilds.   The episodic structure of this section is to some extent formulaic. Episodes consist of 1–4 chapters and usually involve Xuánzàng being captured and having his life threatened while his disciples try to find an ingenious (and often violent) way of liberating him. Although some of Xuánzàng's predicaments are political and involve ordinary human beings, they more frequently consist of run-ins with various goblins and ogres, many of whom turn out to be the earthly manifestations of heavenly beings (whose sins will be negated by eating the flesh of Xuánzàng) or animal-spirits with enough Taoist spiritual merit to assume semi-human forms.   Chapters 13–22 do not follow this structure precisely, as they introduce Xuánzàng's disciples, who, inspired or goaded by Guānyīn, meet and agree to serve him along the way in order to atone for their sins in their past lives.   The first is Sun Wukong (simplified Chinese: 孙悟空), or Monkey, previously "Great Sage Equal to Heaven", trapped by Buddha for rebelling against Heaven. He appears right away in Chapter 13. The most intelligent and violent of the disciples, he is constantly reproved for his violence by Xuánzàng. Ultimately, he can only be controlled by a magic gold band that the Bodhisattva has placed around his head, which causes him bad headaches when Xuánzàng chants certain magic words.   The second, appearing in chapter 19, is Zhu Bajie (simplified Chinese: 猪八戒), literally Eight-precepts Pig, sometimes translated as Pigsy or just Pig. He was previously Marshal Tīan Péng (simplified Chinese: 天蓬元帅), commander of the Heavenly Naval forces, banished to the mortal realm for flirting with the Princess of the Moon Chang'e. He is characterized by his insatiable appetites for food and sex, and is constantly looking for a way out of his duties, which causes significant conflict with Sūn Wùkōng. Nevertheless he is a reliable fighter.   The third, appearing in chapter 22, is the river-ogre Sha Wujing (simplified Chinese: 沙悟净), also translated as Friar Sand or Sandy. He was previously Great General who Folds the Curtain (simplified Chinese: 卷帘大将), banished to the mortal realm for dropping (and shattering) a crystal goblet of the Heavenly Queen Mother. He is a quiet but generally dependable character, who serves as the straight foil to the comic relief of Sūn and Zhū.   The fourth disciple is the third prince of the Dragon-King, Yùlóng Sāntàizǐ (simplified Chinese: 玉龙三太子), who was sentenced to death for setting fire to his father's great pearl. He was saved by Guānyīn from execution to stay and wait for his call of duty. He appears first in chapter 15, but has almost no speaking role, as throughout most of the story he appears in the transformed shape of a horse that Xuánzàng rides on.   Chapter 22, where Shā is introduced, also provides a geographical boundary, as the river that the travelers cross brings them into a new "continent". Chapters 23–86 take place in the wilderness, and consist of 24 episodes of varying length, each characterized by a different magical monster or evil magician. There are impassably wide rivers, flaming mountains, a kingdom ruled by women, a lair of seductive spider-spirits, and many other fantastic scenarios. Throughout the journey, the four brave disciples have to fend off attacks on their master and teacher Xuánzàng from various monsters and calamities.   It is strongly suggested that most of these calamities are engineered by fate and/or the Buddha, as, while the monsters who attack are vast in power and many in number, no real harm ever comes to the four travelers. Some of the monsters turn out to be escaped heavenly animals belonging to bodisattvas or Taoist sages and spirits. Towards the end of the book there is a scene where the Buddha literally commands the fulfillment of the last disaster, because Xuánzàng is one short of the eighty-one disasters he needs to attain Buddhahood.   In chapter 87, Xuánzàng finally reaches the borderlands of India, and chapters 87–99 present magical adventures in a somewhat more mundane (though still exotic) setting. At length, after a pilgrimage said to have taken fourteen years (the text actually only provides evidence for nine of those years, but presumably there was room to add additional episodes) they arrive at the half-real, half-legendary destination of Vulture Peak, where, in a scene simultaneously mystical and comic, Xuánzàng receives the scriptures from the living Buddha.   Chapter 100, the last of all, quickly describes the return journey to the Táng Empire, and the aftermath in which each traveler receives a reward in the form of posts in the bureaucracy of the heavens. Sūn Wùkōng and Xuánzàng achieve Buddhahood, Wùjìng becomes an arhat, Sāntàizǐ the dragon prince horse is made a nāga, and Bājiè, whose good deeds have always been tempered by his greed, is promoted to an altar cleanser (i.e. eater of excess offerings at altars).


  Journey to the West is the first Romantic chapter novel about gods and demons in ancient China.   There are 100 copies of Journey to the West published in the Ming Dynasty without the author's signature.   Wu Yuxuan, a scholar of the Qing Dynasty, first proposed that the author of Journey to the West was Wu Chengen of the Ming Dynasty.   This novel is based on the historical event of "Tang monk's learning classics".Through the author's artistic processing.   it profoundly depicts the social reality at that time. After describing Sun Wukong's birth and havoc of the heavenly palace.   the whole book met three people, Tang Seng, Zhu Ba Jie and Sha Seng.Westbound Buddhist sutras, all the way down demons and demons.   experienced the ninety-eighty-one difficulties, and finally arrived in the west to see Buddha Tathagata, and finally the story of the five saints come true.   Journey to the West is a classic novel of Chinese gods and demons, reaching the peak of ancient Romantic novels.   It is also known as the four classical works of China with Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Water Margin and Dream of Red Mansions.   中文版:   《西游记》是中国古代第一部浪漫主义章回体长篇神魔小说。现存明刊百回本《西游记》均无作者署名。   清代学者吴玉搢等首先提出《西游记》作者是明代吴承恩。这部小说以“唐僧取经”这一历史事件为蓝本。   通过作者的艺术加工,深刻地描绘了当时的社会现实。全书主要描写了孙悟空出世及大闹天宫后,遇见了唐僧、猪八戒和沙僧三人。   西行取经,一路降妖伏魔,经历了九九八十一难,终于到达西天见到如来佛祖,最终五圣成真的故事。   《西游记》是中国神魔小说的经典之作,达到了古代长篇浪漫主义小说的巅峰,与《三国演义》《水浒传》《红楼梦》并称为中国古典四大名著。      扩展资料:   创作背景:   In the first year of Emperor Taizong's Zhenguan in the Tang Dynasty (627), a 25-year-old monk, Xuanzang Tianzhu (India).   traveled on foot. After departing from Chang'an, he traveled through Central Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan, through all difficulties and obstacles, and finally arrived in India.   He studied there for more than two years and was praised as a lecturer at a large Buddhist Confucianism Debate.   In the nineteenth year of Zhenguan (645), Xuanzang returned to Chang'an and brought back 657 Buddhist sutras, which caused a great sensation.   Later, Xuanzang dictated what he had seen and heard about the westward journey and was compiled by disciple Bian Ji into Twelve Volumes of Records of the Western Regions of the Great Tang Dynasty.   But this book mainly tells the history, geography and transportation of the countries we see on the road. There are no stories.   As for his disciples Huili and Yan Cong's Biography of the Three Tibetan Masters at Dacien Temple in the Tang Dynasty.   it added a lot of mythological color to Xuanzang's experience. From then on, the story of the Tang monk's taking scriptures began to spread widely among the Chinese people.   中文版:   唐太宗贞观元年(627年),25岁的和尚玄奘天竺(印度)徒步游学。他从长安出发后,途经中亚、阿富汗、巴基斯坦,历尽艰难险阻,最后到达了印度。   在那里学习了两年多,并在一次大型佛教经学辩论会任主讲,受到了赞誉。贞观十九年(645年)玄奘回到了长安,带回佛经657部,轰动一时。   后来玄奘口述西行见闻,由弟子辩机辑录成《大唐西域记》十二卷。但这部书主要讲述了路上所见各国的历史、地理及交通,没有什么故事。   及到他的弟子慧立、彦琮撰写的《大唐大慈恩寺三藏法师传》,则为玄奘的经历增添了许多神话色彩,从此,唐僧取经的故事便开始在中国民间广为流传。   参考资料来源:[baike.baidu.com]




  Journey to the west is a historic Chinese novel that is considered one of the four classics from the Ming Dynasty. These novels along with the golden lotus water margins as well as the romances of the three kingdoms have won popular acclaim from generation to generation. Journey to the west is a combination of myth parable and comedy. It is a story about a Buddhist monk and bunch of animals with human characteristic. The animals actually in the story are a very fairy tale type of mood and they traveled west to India to find Buddhist scriptures. The animals themselves are celestial being in mortal forms and they have magical powers that protect them from the goblins and the evil spirits.   Author Wu Cheng-en writings create an imaginary world that creates a life like with the absurd giving us a glance of the different sides of human nature.   Monkey was created out of a rock. He not only has the sharp wit and an unruly nature of a monkey but also extra ordinary powers that he uses to overcome demons and monsters. Pig sets off his pig like clumsiness with the disposition that is the epitome of honesty and directness. He is always making a mess out of things and generating a lot of humor in the process. Before the monk can find the scriptures he must surmounts 81 obstacles including overcoming such supernatural beings as cow demon the spiders beast and a living skeleton. These obstacles symbolize the difficulties and challenges that people meet in the course of ideals.   The character is the main reason that journey to the west keeps reader in thrall. The book gets more then and uproars comedy. It gives us readers an unforgivable insight into life itself.   As for the historical record of journey to the west let's go back to the Tang dynasty. History actually recalls the Buddhist monk master Shan-chang or master Xuan Zhuang who crossed he mighty desert to reach the India continent during the Tang dynasty. 19 years later he came back to china with over 600 Buddhist scriptures. So the factual basis of journey to the west was born. However master Xuan Zhuang actually was a little bit different from master san tong. Who was actually a fictional character created by the author?   In a novel, Tang Shan-chang maybe a monk on a daring mission to find Buddha scriptures. But he is also a faint-hearted hypocrite who lacks transcendent insight and lives life in pectoral fear. He is kind and compassionate but his inability to distinguish between true and false hood make him all to susceptible to pig's effort to sew this court. The result is that he wrongly distresses monkey who can see through the bio schemes of evil spirits and demons. But of course when he has fallow blindly in   the trap of some fin or other it is always monkey that fall back on for help.   Actually the character of the monk happens to be quite similar to the mythical scholar although he is an idealist at heart he is as weak as a kitten and just sets there helplessly for rescue when he gets into a predicament.   The author is perhaps making a sly jab at the incompetent rulers of his time. But if Tang Shan-chang is evaluated purely from his viewpoint of religion or spiritual attainment he appears as not a saintly monk but rather an ordinary man. So monkey is the real hero in journey to the west. Monkey is created from a rock on enchanted mountain and because of his courage and insight is later anointed by his peers as king. But one day in a flash of enlightenment, this glorious monkey king see that life is a very temporary thing and that the delights of his timely existence in the area mountain tree cannot go on forever. Amazingly he gives it all up to find a master who can guide him on to the path of spiritual motivation. Monkey is gifted with intelligence and agility both mentally and physically. So he puts his talents to use by mastering his skills of wizardry to the point of where he can transform himself 72 times in a blink of an eye. He has a magic wan that can shrink smaller the pen or   expand till it is like a club of bronze and a magic cloud that can take him up to the heavens or down to the bales of the earth.   The monkey still retains his mischievous and playful temperament of his fellow apes. His intelligence and child like naughtiness are reviled when he does things like deliberately sending pig to scan the near by mountain and then transforming himself into an insect to keep an eye on his indolent companion.   Fearing nothing the monkey would play in the palace of the sea god in heaven or in Hades itself. He even makes a bet with Buddha. His is a rebellious character that will just not bow to established rules.   Full of life and filled with spirit as well as being sincere and optimistic in nature, he is not bothered by suffering and is always ready to face up to new challenges. This kind of wiliness to forge ahead maybe the stuff those heroes are made out of. But it carries with it a weakness of arrogance impulsiveness and a desire to excel over others.   Pig fills a role that symbolizes the desire to comfort and pleasure. He to has magical powers but it is just not the same as monkey. Who makes him seem naive and clumsy by comparison monkey just love to tease him so pig does his level best to be a thorn in monkeys side by telling lies about him to tong song jon.   Pig is a lazy gluttonous that needs his material comforts when it comes to trouble he just can't hold his side up so is always first to call on for help. During their journey he nearly cast his companion in his own spiritual cultivation inside. When he falls for enticement of beautiful women and riches. But if finally turns out to be all work of Buddha salvia that has come to test him. Yet thanks to the author pig ludicrous behavior brings an ironic smile to the readers face rather then a frown of disapproval because while pig makes a laughing stock of him self-the reader is reminded of the covetous raspy nature that empathy the human condition. Another character that appears quite less frequently is friar san when he does take the stage. His quite resolute and down to nature are readily apparent.   Actually In journey of the west is purification of the mind so that the entire expedition to find Buddha scriptures is actually a way of achieving spiritual goodness. So in this play three arrogant weakness laziness even ignorance they are all weakness of human nature that requires spiritual correction. However honesty goodness and courage are all our friends in the depths of our soul. And this way the journey to the west the various characters in battle with evil and they teach us that in human life it is possible and temper ourselves to achieve ideals and goodness.